What Are Pressure Vessels and How Do They Function?

The most prevalent are pressure containers for internal containment, which are meant to store liquid, gas, or vapor at pressures greater than 15 PSI. Pressure Vessels, Reactors and Towers  can be burned, like boilers, or unfired, like storage tanks, processing vessels, and heat exchangers (more on that later). Because these containers may function under extreme pressure, they must be built according to precise specifications. ASME Section VIII and API 510 are two of the most important pressure vessel standards. When looking for a pressure vessel manufacturing firm to deal with, look for one that adheres to industry standards and has stringent quality control methods and vessel testing in place.

What Is the Distinction Between Pressure Tanks and Pressure Vessels?

The fundamental contrast between vessels and tanks is that pressure tanks have an MAOP of 15 PSI, whereas high-pressure vessels start at 15 PSI but may handle up to 3000 PSI (and even higher under special allowances).

Pressure vessel types

The three most prevalent types of pressure vessels are storage vessels, heat exchangers, and process vessels.

Storage Containers

Many items need the use of pressure to be properly kept. This need is met by storage pressure vessels, and each vessel must be specifically built to accept a certain kind and temperature of the product. Propane, ammonia, butane, chlorine, and LPG are some examples of products.

Exchangers of heat

Heat exchangers allow heat to transfer from one product to another without bringing the two fluids into direct contact. A series of metal tubes are used in the most typical pressure vessel heat exchangers. One product runs through the tubes while another flows around them. This allows heat to be transferred from one product to another. This type of pressure vessel may be found in waste processing plants, where heat exchangers are frequently employed to recover heat from waste gases.

Process Containers

These adaptable pressure vessels are frequently employed as part of a production process line, where several tanks work together to produce a product. Process vessels perform tasks such as separation, heating, cooling, purification, mixing, and more. To mention a few, process vessels can be found in paint manufacturing, medication manufacturing, refineries, and food processing plants.

Types of Pressure Vessel Heads

The most popular types of vessels are cylindrical, horizontal, and vertical pressure vessels, which all require specific ASME caps on either end. These caps are known as “heads,” and there are three types.

Head Hemispherical

This head’s depth is half its diameter, and its normal thickness is roughly half the thickness of the pressure vessel’s shell. Despite being the thinnest head option, this design is sometimes more expensive than the others since it cannot be produced from a single flat sheet and requires welding assembly.

An Ellipsoidal Shape

This head is elliptical, and the most common ratio is 2:1. (which means that the width of the ellipse is double the depth). Because this head is less effective at managing pressure stresses than a hemispherical head, ASME requirements require additional thickness.

Dished and flanged heads

Flanged and dished heads (F & D) are commonly used on pressure vessels with limited vessel height and moderate pressure. Because of the restricted knuckle radius on F & D heads, they must be thicker than the vessel’s shell.